The first civilized people of America that the Spaniards encountered during the conquest of the lands of the western hemisphere were Maya. In 1517, on the rocky coast of Cape Katoch (Yucatan Peninsula), the first test of strength of two warring worlds occurred, separated from each other not only by the boundless expanses of the ocean, but also by whole epochs of historical development. Conquistadors armored in steel armor armed with European military equipment and tactics of those years agreed in a decisive battle with numerous armies of Maya Indians armed with spears and arrows with stone tips. The outcome of this unequal struggle was predetermined by history itself. But the Maya for many years fiercely defended their independence from the encroachments of foreign conquerors. Even in 1540, i.e. 20 years after the death of the powerful Aztec state, much of the Yucatan was still in the hands of the Indians. Continue reading
Romanesque art, the style of architecture and other branches of art that originated in Western Europe in the 10th century. The term “Romanesque” (French Romanesque, Spanish romanico, German Romanik from Latin romanum) appeared at the beginning of the 19th century, when historians and romantic artists, discovering the art of the early Middle Ages, noticed that the architecture of this era reminds of ancient roman. The Romanesque era – the time of the emergence of the pan-European architectural style. The leading role in this process was played by the peoples of Western Europe. The formation of the Western European Romanesque culture due to continuous wars and the resettlement of peoples took place later than in the East, in Byzantium, but proceeded more dynamically. The main feature of the Romanesque era is openness to external influences. Continue reading
Rococo (French rococo – fanciful, quaint from rocaille – rocky from roc – rock, cliff). Rococo – the original art style, developed in the art of France, the first half of the XVIII century. Same as Louis XV style, since it coincides with the time of the reign of this king (1720-1765). Rococo – one of the most famous “royal styles.” The origin of its name and main forms is closely related to the concept of “rokail”.
In 1736, the French jeweler and woodcarver J. Mondon, Son, published an album of engraved drawings entitled “The First Book of the Forms of Rokaille and Cartelles”. Cartel – French cartelle from carte – map, scroll paper. Continue reading