Suprematism is the direction of non-objective art, invented by KS Malevich. Russian and Western European researchers often derive it from the French word supreme, while the term is actually derived from the French word supre mati (superiority, primacy) or even from the Polish suprémacja, which has the same meaning. According to Malevich’s own explanation, “the word suprematism means primacy (that is, the primacy) of the color problem.”
The impulse for the birth of Suprematism was given by the cubofuturistic period in the artist’s work, the most important category of which was alogism. It is alogism that allowed to mate diverse spheres of life, freely operate with categories of space and time, gave priority to intuition in the creative process, because from Malevich’s point of view, the masters who preferred reason remained chained to the forms of the real world, “did not go beyond zero”.
The invention of Suprematism was preceded by the production of the futuristic opera Victory over the Sun (text by A. Kruchenykh, author of the prologue V. Khlebnikov, music by M. Matyushin, artist Malevich), held in December 1913 in St. Petersburg Luna Park. The costumes, the curtain, created for her by Malevich, already contained in the embryo many elements of the suprematic form.
For the first time the Suprematist works were shown by Malevich at the exhibition “0.10” in 1915. For the exhibition Malevich published a brochure “From Cubism to Suprematism. New picturesque realism ”, reinforcing his plastic experiment with theoretical support. The role of the plastic manifesto of the new direction was played by the painting “Black Square”.
In 1916-1917, Malevich and his followers organized the artistic society “Supremus”, which set itself the goal of spreading the ideas of suprematism.
In numerous theoretical essays written in the late 1910s – 1920s, Malevich substantiated the importance of suprematism as a universal artistic and life-building system.
He divided the evolution of the suprematic ideas into three stages according to the number of squares – black, red and white, the black period, color and white. In the latter forms are written white in white. All three periods of development went from 1913 to 1918. Periods were built in a purely planar development. The basis of their construction was the main economic principle of one plane to transfer the power of static or visible dynamic peace. ”Creating a system of suprematism, Malevich seemed to return to such a system of thinking, where, as in ancient times, artistic, philosophical, esoteric and scientific knowledge of the world remained in syncretic unity , and with his “Black Square” he seemed to summarize the period of symbolic thinking, indicating the path of transition from symbol to formula. Such was the sign of the times, which dreamed of a grand reorganization of the world and of synthesis, as the basis of such a reorganization.
In the early 1920s, a group of students and followers formed around Malevich, who developed his ideas and used them not only in painting, but also in design. During the 1920s, Suprematism influenced architecture, printing, textiles, and porcelain.