Bone pin of Kampyrtepa fortress. From the history of hairpins
A unique antique monument – Kampyrtepa fortress, located on the right bank of the r. Amu-Darya, 30 km. south-west of Termez in the south of the Surkhandarya region of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Since 1972, his systematic research has been conducted by the Tokharistan Expedition of the Institute of Art Studies of the Academy of Arts of Uzbekistan, under the guidance of Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Edward Vasilyevich Rtveladze. In the late 80s, an archeological detachment of the Surkhan-Darya regional local history museum worked as part of the expedition. As a result of the research, rich archeological material was obtained, which was transferred to the museum funds.
Among the bone objects stored in the archaeological fund of the museum, a hairpin is of great interest. It was discovered during the excavation of 3 objects P-5, in the southeastern part of the Kushan city of Kampyrtepa. The cultural layer in which it is found dates from the Kanishka coins.
The hairpin is of conical shape (height 12 cm, diameter in the upper part-0.6 cm). One side is pointed, the other is framed in the form of a pomegranate. The pommel is separated from the rod by two tiers of rectangular and trapezoidal cuffs. Each of them has a drawn pattern. On one it is a series of inclined intersecting strips, on the other – a series of horizontal and inclined strips.
The scientific literature has repeatedly noted the presence of such items in archaeological complexes, but they were called differently – punctures (Bone style from one end was sharpened for scratching marks on wax, and on the other hand had a ball or spatula for mashing incorrectly written or unnecessary entries ” Most of the “styles” found so far have been with figured tops, which undoubtedly made it difficult to perform one of its functions. Another weighty argument, not in favor of defining an object as a style, is that that during the opening of burials, they were found on the skull or under the skull of buried women, for example, on Sapallitepa; among women’s jewelery as a head pin or just a pin
The area of distribution and the period of existence of styles is very wide. They are found in Ancient Messopotamia, in the Transcaucasus, the Black Sea region, in Southern Turkmenistan, Khorezm, in the territory of Southern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
Judging by the archaeological data, barrettes on the territory of Central Asia were very popular among the population in the Bronze Age and in the first centuries BC. and ad In the period of the Middle Ages, their number is reduced and only in the XVIII-XIX centuries. there is a revival of the tradition of wearing pins.
On opening Sapallitepa, bronze pins of four types were found: pin-prints with rosette topping, nail-shaped pins with biconical and conical caps, pins with fist-shaped and figured tops. Similar bronze pins were found on Jarkutan and Dashly-3.
Barrettes were widely spread in the first centuries BC – first centuries AD. in Bactria. So, in Dal’verzinsky nausa in the crypt 5, when clearing the female bones, a bone hairpin with a top in the form of a hand was found. On the same monument on the floor of room 24, in a rich house, a bone “style” with a left hand was found. Bone “styles” with a bird-shaped head and a horse’s head, as well as with a flat top found on the Zartepa. Several specimens of carefully polished pointed sticks, the upper part of which is decorated with carvings, come from Shahristan Hirabadtepa. Bronze pins with ring grooves are found in the construction of the II Tecai Shah necropolis. Bronze and bone pins in the form of a hand and a bird, dating from the 4th-5th centuries. AD found in the territory of Tajikistan. A pointed stick with a pommel in the form of teeth, similar to the teeth of a comb, was noted in the layer of the III-IV centuries. AD on the site of Varakhsha. In Khorezm, bone wands were found with a pommel in the shape of a hand with the other three fingers stretched and folded together by the thumb and index finger and pressed to the palm. On the site of Toprakkala, in the building III, two horn pins were fixed with a complex carved pommel, ending like a four-toothed crown, and with a pommel in the form of a serpent’s head; one bronze pin with a hooked head, decorated with five bands, formed by five ring notches. On the same mound, in the layers of the II-IV centuries. AD found a bone pin with a curious tip.