THE MOST IMPORTANT ARCHAEOLOGICAL OPENINGS OF THE YEAR
Archaeology magazine summed up the outgoing year and made a rating of the most significant archaeological discoveries and finds.
1. The composition of the blue paint of the Maya is disclosed. This Maya paint painted captives intended to offer sacrifices to the gods. This discovery belongs to an anthropologist from Vyton College in Illinois Dean Arnold. He analyzed the remnants of a substance in a sacrificial cup stored in the Field’s Chicago Museum of Natural History. According to the scientist, the paint was made from indigo leaves and clay.
2. In Peru, the mummy of a man who belonged to the pre-Inca culture of Wari was discovered; The mummy was found in August in a burial hill near Lima. The mummy was perfectly preserved; it was wrapped in several layers of wool fabric. A wooden mask was put on the mummy’s face, and blue sea shells were embedded in the sockets. Judging by the knitting needles and skeins of yarn found near the mummy, it was the burial of the weaver.
3. In Turkey, on the site of the ancient city of Samal, a burial stele dating from the eighth century BC was discovered. Stele was discovered by graduate students from the University of Chicago, Virginia Rimmer and Benjamin Thomas. This is a 350-kilogram basalt, on which is inscribed with the Phoenician alphabet. The inscription speaks of a certain Kuttamuva, who made an offering of food for the soul enclosed in this stela. This is evidence that in the times of the Iron Age there was already a belief that the soul could exist separately from the body.
4. No less important for science and the following finding – in the east of Oregon, coprolites were found. This cunning word denotes petrified excrement. They belonged to the people who lived in this area 14,300 years ago, before the Clovis people appeared on the American continent. This discovery, made by Denis Jenkins, allowed scientists to obtain the DNA of the ancient inhabitants of the American continent.
In the labyrinth of thousands of caves in the Afghan valley of Bamiyan, oil-painted images were found5. In the labyrinth of thousands of caves in the Afghan valley of Bamiyan, oil-painted images dating from the middle of the seventh century were discovered. Previously it was believed that oil paints appeared only in the twelfth century. An international archaeological expedition discovered fifty caves whose walls are painted with paintings depicting religious scenes and scenes from the life of the Buddha.
Found in the Sierra de Atapuerca jaw 6. In the Elephant Cave in the Sierra de Atapuerca, in northern Spain, a piece of human jaw with the remains of teeth was discovered. Spanish scientist José Castro, who led the archaeologists, set the age of this find – 1.3 million years. Thus, the age of the first inhabitants of Europe, arrived from Africa, increased by half a million years.
7. An anthropologist at the University of Washington in St. Louis conducted an analysis of the phalanx of a person’s toe found in Tian’an Cave, near Beijing. He concluded that a man whose remains were studied, who lived 42 thousand years ago, wore solid shoes.
8. At the bottom of the sea near the shores of Namibia treasure found. Portuguese geologists have discovered a sixteenth-century Portuguese trading ship. In the cabin of the captain, scientists have found a chest with gold coins with a chased image of the Spanish royal couple Ferdinand and Isabella. The ship also found astrolabes, ivory tusks and 13 tons of copper ingots dating from the sixteenth century.
The head of a giant statue of Andrian9. In the central part of Turkey during the excavations of the ancient city of Sagalassos, archaeologists discovered large marble heads of Roman emperors: the head of a giant statue of Andrian standing in city baths, fragments of statues of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina the elder, the wife of Emperor Antonin Pius.
10. In Chukotka, not far from the village of Nunligran, archaeologists discovered a half-meter canine, on which there was a skillful carving with images of a fur seal, a bear, and hunters armed with harpoons hunting a whale on a boat. The age of the find is 3 thousand years. This is the earliest evidence of whale hunting.