Cubism – (French. Cubisme, from cube – cyb) direction in the first century of the 20th century. The plastic language of cybism is based on the deflection and decomposition of items on the basis of heightened plasticity, displacement of the form.
Many Russian artists have passed through the Kibism, often joining his principles with the help of other modern dispatchers.
The emergence of cubism is attributed to 1907, when P. Picasso painted the picture Avignon Girls (Museum of Modern Art, New York), unusual for its acute grotesque: deformed, coarse figures are depicted here without any light and light elements and perspectives, as a combination of decomposed on the volume plane.
In 1908, the group “Batolavoir” (“Boat-raft-washing”) was formed in Paris, which included Picasso, J. Brac, Spaniard X. Gris, writers G, Apollinaire. G. Stein and others. In this group the basic principles of cubism were formed and were consistently expressed. The word “Cubists” was first used in 1908 by the French. critic L. Vossel as a mocking nickname of artists depicting the objective world in the form of combinations of regular geometric volumes (cube, ball, cylinder, cone).
Reducing to a minimum, and often striving to build their works from a combination of elementary, “primary” forms, representatives of cubism turned to constructing a three-dimensional form on a plane, dividing the real volume into geometrical bodies, shifted, intersecting each other, taken from different points of view.
Coming into the circle of many modernist currents, cubism stood out among them for harsh asceticism of color, for simple, powerful, tangible forms, for elementary motifs (such as house, wood, utensils, etc.). This is especially characteristic of the early stage of cubism, formed under the influence of the painting of P. Cezanne. In this “Cézanne” period of cubism (1907–09), the geometrization of forms emphasizes the stability, the objectivity of the world; powerful faceted volumes as if densely displayed on the surface of the canvas, forming a semblance of relief; color, highlighting the individual facets of the object, both simultaneously enhances and crushes the volume (P. Picasso, Three Women, 1909, J. Marriage Estak, 1908).
In the next, “analytical” stage of cubism (1910–12), the subject falls apart, is broken up into small faces, which are clearly separated from each other: the subject form is spread on the canvas (P. Picasso, A. Vollard, 1910, J. Marriage, “In honor of I. S. Bach”, 1912).
In the last, “synthetic” stage (1912–14), the decorative beginning wins, and the paintings turn into colorful plane panels (P. Picasso, “Guitar and Violin”, 1913; J. Marriage, “Woman with a Guitar”); there is interest in any kind of textural effects – labels (collages), powders, three-dimensional structures on the canvas, that is, the rejection of the image of space and volume is compensated, as it were, by relief material constructions in real space.
By 1914, Cubism began to give way to other trends, but continued to influence not only French artists, but also Italian futurists, Russian cubist-futurists (K. S. Malevich, V. E. Tatlin), German artists “Bauhaus” (L. Feininger, O. Schlemmer).